Buck Conner's has written for a number of publications; "On the Trail", "Backwoodsman", "Tomahawk & Long Rifle", "Black Powder Report", "Buckskin Report", "Poke & Stroke", Smoke & Fire News",  "The Colonial Society", and the "Colorado Collectors" journals.  He is currently writing as a columnist for "Buckskinner" magazine.


I started and established a business for correct period foods and items to prepare those foods, for the re-enactment movement going on in North America and Europe back in 1980.

Our original store “Buckhorn Rendezvous”, later becoming in the 90’sClark & Sons Mercantile grew into a mail order business named after an old family name that was as old as our country.

From the six sons of John and Ann Rogers Clark, came forts they built, wars they won, new territory found, lands they mapped and not to be forgotten, the businesses started. The family name of Clark has been in American History from the beginning, “from sea to shinning sea”, treading on new ground, always involved and looking for a new venture or adventure.

As participants ourselves in the various time frames, from the F & I War to the Indian Wars, we’ve seen our share of not correct merchandise in the last 35 to 40 years and will endeavor to bring documented items for several time periods.

Now knowing our background let’s work on helping you get “correct” with your edibles. In issues to come we can address proper recipes, cookware and general camp needs.


Food grain and mill products shown are correct for the time period seen on each item. We have saved you the time in researching of proper grains and mill items for the various time periods, with furnished history and its origin, even to proper usages.

Coffee and Teas have been researched back to French, German and English sources, to try and be correct as possible for your needs.

We have tried to stay with our theme of supplying you information on correct foods, grains and mill items. Because of the demand, we’ve added cooking and camp life equipage to round out a research need of today’s re-enactors.  


Grains, seeds, milled products and seasonings shown should be organically grown or purchase from a grower that does so as in the original colonies from which they were planted, when arriving from other lands. Don’t panic I share a little secret for an easy source for these items, your local health store that handles organic products.

We have coded these products for their popularity or availability for a specified time frame in our information.



As you do your research on edible foods, wild and planted, you will find that a large amount came from Pennsylvania Germans, who brought them from their home lands in Europe from as early as the 1500’s.

There is a large variety of preferred seeds that have made their way from gardens of the east to the growing beds of the west and everywhere in between, thanks to our early explorers.  

Traders, merchants and just common people moving to new homes in the unknown territories have carried their seeds, dropped on the way by accident or gardens started, and then minds and locations for a home are changed.

Let’s take a look at some of the types and varieties of grains, vegetables, spices and herbs that found their way across North America in the westward expansion.

Field Seeds

  • Buckwheat: Lewis & Clark mention buckwheat cakes, as do other colonists in our early history, not sure of how long it has been in N. America, or if the Pa. Germans brought it over, like so many other seeds.
  • Flax: Has been grown in the colonies as early as 1560’s, used for linen cloth and a number of other cloths by products. Ariane Flax seed is available today.
  • Rye: This is a good ground cover crop used by Pa. Germans for hundreds of years in this country. Flour is still available in stores today, good for period baking.
  • Spelt: A form of wheat with a little difference in texture was originally from Europe but found its way to the colonies when settled. Spelt Mills were popular during the 1800’s in producing flour. You will probably not be able to find seed that is suitable for human usage.
  • Gourds: In colonial America, old Mexico and parts of Europe, gourds have been used for a number of storage vessels. They have been cooked, fried, boiled or any other way you can think of to be prepared to be eaten. Dipper and large bottle gourds are as old as anything we can find today.
  • Kale:  A good green that will fill in for cabbage or cauliflower in ones diet. Russian or Rugged Jack are good choices that will fit a period menu.
  • Leeks: A member of the onion family, used as a vegetable and will be correct for an early 1830’s meal. We like the Swiss Coloma Leeks for a green with meat.
  • Peas: A native to Europe they came over with our friends the Pa. Germans during the migration to the colonies in the 1700’s. The closest to the original would be the Risser Early Sugar Pea.
  • Pumpkin: Native to the Americas, there are six types listed but no longer available with only a close relation still around, the Fortna White Pumpkin.
  • Turnips: From Germany originally this turnip of today is only 100 years old, not really period as to say, Gilfeather Turnip.


Tomatoes: Originated in South and Central America, they found their way to Thomas Jefferson’s garden as early as 1781. Red Brandywine is as close as we can come to today, as to the originals he grew.
  • Beans: Beans were often planted with corn and squash, called “Three Sisters” plantings, the colonists used this Indian method as early as the 1650’s. Fisher, Smith, Hutterite and Jacob’s Cattle beans are still available. Pole beans; Hoffer Lazy Wife, Smith and Scarlet Runner beans have been around since before 1800.
  • Beets: Native to Europe and N. Africa, their first appearance in N. America is not clear, but reference has been made of them in journals dating to the early 1600’s. Deacon Dan or Lutz is a good choice for the older types.
  • Cabbage: This mustard family member has been around for 5000 years according to history books. Early Copenhagen, Early Jersey Wakefield and Red Drumhead cabbage will put you into the late 1700’s.
  • Carrots: Member of the parsley family came to South and North America from Europe and Asia, in the form of animal fodder, with the colonies employment in the early settlements. The only one that comes close for period use would be the Early Scarlet Horn Carrot.
  • Corn: Maize is a native of this country, introduced to the early colonies by the natives. This was not a sweet corn as we know it today, more of a field corn, eaten when still young; it passed as good filler in lean times.






This is a good stopping point, we don't want to have you think this is to much effort, stay away from the "junk" foods. Remember this is not only period correct foods but also what we are now told "healthy food".


documented facts pertaining to periods & availability of foods.

Page 3